Moldova & IMF IMF Activities Publications Press Releases




     Global Financial Stability Report
       Old Risks, New Challenges

April 2013

The April 2013: The Global Financial Stability Report examines current risks facing the global financial system and policy actions that may mitigate these. The April 2013 report analyzes the key challenges facing financial and nonfinancial firms as they continue to repair their balance sheets and unwind public and private debt overhangs. Chapter 1 also examines short- and medium-term stability risks in the euro area and the vulnerability of emerging market economies to persistent capital inflows. Chapter 2 takes a closer look at whether sovereign credit default swaps markets are good indicators of sovereign credit risk. Chapter 3 reports on unconventional monetary policy in some depth, including the policies pursued by the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, the Bank of Japan, the European Central Bank, and the U.S. Federal Reserve.

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Chapter 1. Acute Risks Reduced: Actions Needed to Entrench Financial Stability

    1.1 What Has China’s Lending Boom Done to Corporate Leverage?
  Data     1.1 Selected Euro Area Countries: Vulnerability Indicators in the Corporate Sector
  Data 1.2 Deleveraging Progress, 2011:Q3–2012:Q3
  Data 1.3 U.S. Nonfinancial Corporate Bonds: Yields, Spreads, and Valuations
  Data 1.4 Scenarios for U.S. Treasury Bond Market Corrections
  Data 1.5 Distribution of Bank Lending and Nonperforming Loans
    1.6 Credit and Asset Market Indicators for Selected Emerging Markets and Other Countries
    1.7 Comparing Proposals for Structural Reform
  Data 1.8 Nonfinancial Corporate Debt and Leverage
  Data 1.9 Nonfinancial Corporate Database Coverage
  Data 1.10 Corporate Sectoral Breakdown within the Sample
    1.11 Progress on Deleveraging/Restructuring Plans of Selected Major European Banks, as of January 2013
  Data 1.1 Global Financial Stability Map
  Data 1.2 Global Financial Stability Map: Assessment of Risks and Conditions
  Data 1.3 Asset Price Performance since October 2012 GFSR
  Data 1.4 Global Equity Valuations
  Data 1.5 Global Equity Valuations, by Country
  Data 1.6 Property Price Valuations
  Data 1.7 Hard-Currency Debt Valuations in Emerging Market Economies
  Data 1.8 U.S. Sovereign Debt Valuations
  Data 1.9 Target Balances and Sovereign Bond Yields
  Data 1.10 Periphery Euro Area Banks’ Bond Issuance and CDS Spreads
  Data 1.11 Italy and Spain: Nonfinancial Firms’ Change in Bank Credit and Net Bond Issuance
  Data 1.12 Foreign Investor Share of General Government Debt
  Data 1.13 European Sovereign Bond Spreads, Current and Implied by Forward Curve
  Data 1.14 Asset Performance, March 15–April 2, 2013
  Data 1.15 Proportion of System Balance Sheets Encumbered
  Data 1.16 Periphery Banks’ Covered Bond Issuance and Spreads
  Data 1.17 Selected EU Banks’ Foreign Claims on Banking Sectors, June 2011–September 2012
  Data 1.18 Changes in Interest Rates on New Bank Loans, December 2010–January 2013
  Data 1.19 Corporate Real Interest Rates and GDP Growth, February 2013
  Data 1.20 Bank Lending to the Nonfinancial Private Sector
  Data 1.21 Euro Area Periphery Bank Credit
    1.22 Interaction between Credit Demand and Supply
    1.23 Interest Rate on New Lending and Decomposition of New Bank Funding Rate
  Data 1.24 Euro Area Bank Lending Conditions for Firms
  Data 1.25 Met and Unmet Demand for Bank Credit for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
    1.26 Spread of Interest Rates on New Loans to SMEs over ECB Policy Rate
  Data 1.27A Corporate Debt
  Data 1.27B Corporate Debt in Percent of GDP
  Data 1.28 Share of Firms with High Leverage and Low Interest Coverage Ratio, 2011
  Data 1.29 Share of Firms with High Leverage and Negative Net Free Cash Flow
  Data 1.30 Required Reduction in Leverage under Different Scenarios
  Data 1.31 Required Cuts in Capital Expenditures to Stabilize Debt of Euro Area Periphery Firms with High Leverage and Negative Net Free Cash Flow
  Data 1.32 Bank Core Tier 1 and Wholesale Funding Ratios, 2008:Q4 to 2012:Q3
  Data 1.33 Bank Leverage and Wholesale Funding Ratios, 2008:Q4 to 2012:Q3
  Data 1.34 Ranking of Banking Systems Based on Banks’ Balance Sheet Indicators, 2012:Q3
  Data 1.35 Average Net Interest Margins
  Data 1.36 Impaired Loans in Selected EU Countries
  Data 1.37 EU Banks’ Asset Quality and Profitability
  Data 1.38 Buffers at Individual EU Banks
  Data 1.39 Bank Risk-Weights and Impairments, Average for 2008–11
  Data 1.40 Deposit Funding Gaps of Foreign Subsidiaries of Large EU Banks
  Data 1.41 Average Return on Equity, and Cost of Equity
  Data 1.42 Ratio of Equity Price to Tangible Book Value, April 2013
  Data 1.43 GFSR EU Bank Deleveraging Scenarios
  Data 1.44 Large EU Banks: Contributions to Change in Balance Sheets 2011:Q3–2012:Q3
  Data 1.45 Banks’ Foreign Claims on All Regions
  Data 1.46 Net Foreign Assets Position
  Data 1.47 Global Mutual Fund and Exchange-Traded Fund Flows
  Data 1.48 Net Issues of Fixed-Income Securities
  Data 1.49 U.S. Fixed Investment Spending versus Internal Cash Flow
  Data 1.50 U.S. Nonfinancial Corporate Bond Issuance and Equity Buybacks
  Data 1.51 U.S. Nonfinancial Firms’ Credit Fundamentals
  Data 1.52 U.S. Primary Dealer Repo Financing
  Data 1.53 Global Issuance of Leveraged Loans and Collateralized Debt Obligations
  Data 1.54 Risk Tolerance for Weakest 10 Percent of U.S. Public Pension Funds
  Data 1.55 Net Interest Margins and Investment in Risky Assets by U.S. Insurance Companies
  Data 1.56 U.S. Treasury Sell-Off Episodes
  Data 1.57 U.S. High-Yield Corporate Spread and Liquidity and Volatility
  Data 1.58 Holdings of U.S. Corporate Bonds, by Investor Type
  Data 1.59 Net Capital Flows to Emerging Markets
  Data 1.60 Selected Emerging Market Bond, Equity, and Loan Issuance
  Data 1.61 Nonresident Holdings of Domestic Sovereign Debt
  Data 1.62 Emerging Market Nonfinancial Corporate Issuance
  Data 1.63 Emerging Market Nonfinancial Corporate Leverage, 2007 and 2012
  Data 1.64 Foreign-Exchange-Denominated Debt of Nonfinancial Corporations in Emerging Markets
  Data 1.65 Emerging Market Corporate Issuance, by Type of Issuer
  Data 1.66 Corporate Leverage in Asia, excluding Japan
  Data 1.67 Interest Coverage Ratio for Emerging Market Firms
  Data 1.68 Hard Currency and Local Currency Sovereign Bond Issuance
  Data 1.69 EMBI Global Spread Tightening (December 2008–12): Decomposition
  Data 1.70 Local Yield Tightening in Emerging Market Economies (December 2008–12): Decomposition
  Data 1.71 Impact of Shocks on EMBI Global Spreads
  Data 1.72 Impact of Shocks on Local Emerging Market Yields
  Data 1.73 Domestic Credit Growth, 2006–12
  Data 1.74 Consumer Price Index-Adjusted Residential Property Prices, 2006–12
  Data 1.75 Gross Nonperforming Loan Ratios, 2010–12
  Data 1.76 Banks’ Loss-Absorbing Buffers by Region
  Data 1.77 China: Growth Rate of Credit, by Type
  Data 1.78 European Investment-Grade Corporate Fundamentals
  Data 1.79 Developments in Publicly Listed European Companies
    1.80 Progress in Deleveraging Plans across Sample Banks, 2012

Chapter 2. A New Look at the Role of Sovereign Credit Default Swaps

    2.1 Interconnectedness between Sovereigns and Financial Institutions
    2.2 The European Union’s Ban on Buying Naked Sovereign Credit Default Swap Protection
    2.3 What Could be the Impact of the Demise of SCDS?
    2.4 The Greece Debt Exchange and Its Implications for the SCDS Market
    2.1 Rankings of CDS Amounts Outstanding
    2.2 Lead-Leg Relationship between Sovereign Credit Default Swaps and Bond Residuals
    2.3 List of Countries Included in Empirical Studies
    2.4 List of Variables Used in Regression Analysis
    2.5 Summary of Estimation of Monthly Drivers for Sovereign Credit Default Swap (SCDS) Spreads and Bond Spreads, October 2008–September 2012
    2.6 Summary of Estimation Results on Drivers for Basis, October 2008–September 2012
  Data 2.1 Credit Default Swap (CDS) Contracts, Gross Notional Amounts Outstanding
  Data 2.2 Nondealer Buyers and Sellers of Credit Default Swap Protection: Net Positions by Counterparty
    2.3 Liquidity Indicators in the Sovereign Credit Default Swaps (SCDS) Market
    2.4 Volatility of Sovereign Credit Default Swap (SCDS) Spreads and Sovereign Bond Spreads
    2.5 Determinants of Sovereign Credit Default Swap (SCDS) Spreads and Bond Spreads, October 2008–September 2012
    2.6 Sovereign Credit Default Swap (SCDS) Price Leadership and Liquidity, March 2009–September 2012
    2.7 Time-Varying Price Leadership Measures of Sovereign Credit Default Swaps (SCDS)
  Data 2.8 Sovereign Credit Default Swaps (SCDS): Decomposition of Volatility Factors for Germany, Italy, and Spain, February 2009–October 2012
    2.9 Markov-Switching ARCH Model of VIX, European TED Spread, and Sovereign Credit Default Swap (SCDS) Indices
    2.10 Overshooting and Undershooting of Sovereign Credit Default Swaps (SCDS) and Sovereign Bond Markets
  Data 2.11 Sovereign Credit Default Swaps: Net Notional Amounts Outstanding, Selected EU Countries
    2.12 Market Liquidity Measures before and after Ban on Short Sales of Sovereign Credit Default Swaps (SCDS)
    2.13 Constructing the Arbitrage Trade between Credit Default Swaps (CDS) and Bonds
    2.14 Difference between Sovereign Credit Default Swap Spreads and Sovereign Bond Spreads, Selected Countries

Chapter 3. Do Central Bank Policies Since the Crisis Carry Risks to Financial Stability?

    3.1 Financial Stability Risks Associated with Exit from MP-Plus Policies
    3.2 The Macroeconomic Effectiveness of MP-Plus
    3.3 Balance Sheet Risks of Unconventional Policy in Major Central Banks
    3.1 Asset Holdings of Major Central Banks Related to MP-Plus, 2008–12
    3.2 Results from Event Study Regressions
    3.3 Marginal Effect of MP-Plus on Banks
    3.4 Calculated Losses on a 10-Year Bond as a Result of a Rise in Interest Rates
    3.5 Risks from MP-Plus and Mitigating Policies
    3.6 Specification of Taylor Rule
    3.7 Results of the Panel Regressions
  Data 3.1 Changes in Central Bank Balance Sheets, 2006–12
    3.2 OIS Counterparty Spread Decompositions
  Data 3.3 Central Bank Intervention in Real Estate Securities Markets
  Data    3.4 Central Bank Holdings of Domestic Government Securities and Market Liquidity, by Maturity
    3.5 Correlations between Central Bank Holdings of Government Securities and Market Liquidity, by Maturity of Holdings
    3.6 Interest Rate Risk as Reported by U.S. Banks
  Data 3.7 Bank Holdings of Government Debt in Selected Economies
    3.8 Various Measures of the Taylor Gap in the United States

Statistical Appendix

  Data     1. Major Net Exporters and Importers of Capital in 2012
    2. Sovereign Credit Default Swap Spreads
    3. Selected Credit Default Swap Spreads
    4. Selected Spreads
    5. Implied Volatility Indices
  Data 6. United States: Corporate Bond Market
  Data 7. Euro Area: Corporate Bond Market
  Data 8. United States: Commercial Paper Market
  Data 1. Selected Indicators on the Size of the Capital Markets, 2011
  Data 2. MSCI Equity Market Indices
  Data 3. Emerging Markets Bond Index: EMBI Global Sovereign Yield Spreads
  Data 4. Emerging Market Private External Financing: Total Bonds, Equities, and Loans
  Data 5. Emerging Market Private External Financing: Bonds
  Data 6. Emerging Market Private External Financing: Equities
  Data 7. Emerging Market Private External Financing: Loans
  Data 8. Equity Valuation Measures: Dividend-Yield Ratios
  Data 9. Equity Valuation Measures: Price/Earnings Ratios
  Data 10. Emerging Markets: Mutual Funds